As you may already know, a gazebo is a multipurpose freestanding structure that can be used in gardens, out on a lawn or as a covered gathering area in some other location, such as a park. When gardening in or around a gazebo, there are several factors to take into consideration. This includes how much light is available and where the light occurs, as this will affect which plants will thrive in the garden.
As a general rule, full shade plants should be in an area that receives more than 6 hours of shade. Meanwhile, partial sun/partial shade plants require an area that gets less than six hours of sunlight a day; while a full sun plant requires a minimum of six hours a day of full sunlight. Of course, there are also exceptions such as certain plants may only require full, but indirect sunlight.
Climbing plants require the use of a structure, either man-made or natural, to thrive. Climbing plants generally cannot support themselves and thus will rely on a secondary structure, such as a gazebo, for support. Various ivy vines, morning glories and climbing hibiscus plants are all options. However, be sure to choose a climbing plant that suits your specific region and its weather, as well as the specific type of soil, light and watering that will be available to the plant in your yard.
An annual plant is defined as any plant that can complete an entire life cycle-from seed to full grown, reproducing plant-in a single growing season. Annuals can thrive in full sun, full shade or part sun/part shade. Examples of popular annual plants include wax begonias, impatiens, dwarf salvias and coleus; all of which thrive in shade. Annual plants that thrive in full sun include cosmos, geraniums, zinnia and rose moss.
Perennial plants are plants that live through several growing seasons. Most perennials will experience some type of die back during the winter, but will regrow during the following season from the existing original root system.
Like with annuals, some perennials will prefer full sun while others prefer full shade or a part sun/part shade combination. Examples of full sun perennials that can be grown in a gazebo garden include the garden peony, the daylily, the bearded iris and the blanket flower. Meanwhile, full shade perennials include bleeding heart plants, lilies of the valley, wild violets and wild ginger.
Surprisingly, many will find that depending upon the climate, some perennials will act like an annual, just as some annuals can act like perennials. For example, the Black-Eyed Susan will perform like an annual plant in Louisiana while up in Ohio, that same plant would grow like a perennial (notes from the Aggie Horticulture department at Texas A M University).
Lastly, if you own any pets, especially pets that are allowed outdoors, be sure to choose plants that are pet-safe. Check out the ASPCA’s Toxic and Non-Toxic Plant database, though keep in mind that not all plants are listed and be sure to research your specific plants to ensure your pet’s safety.
References: Texas A M University: Annual, Perennial, Biennial? | University of Missouri: Annuals for Sun | University of Minnesota: Gardening in the Shade by Deborah L. Brown